Mechanical properties under the action of various external forces, the mechanical properties of textile fibers are called the mechanical properties of textile fibers. External forces include tension, compression, bending, torsion, friction other forms.
The mechanical properties of textile fibers include strength, elongation, elasticity, wear resistance, modulus of elasticity, etc.
Strength of fiber: the strength of fiber refers to the ability of fiber to resist external force damage, which largely determines the durability of textile products.
The strength of the fiber can be expressed by the strength of the fiber. It refers to the load that the fiber can bear under the action of continuously increasing the load until it breaks. Its legal lecturer unit is Newton (n) centinewton (CN). In the past, it used to be expressed in grams kilograms.
Because the strength of fiber is related to the thickness of fiber, the strength of fiber with different thickness is incomparable. Therefore, relative strength is often used to express the strength of fiber. Relative strength refers to the tensile force that a unit linear density (per ton per Dan) fiber can bear. The legal unit of measurement is n / tex CN / tex. In the past, it used to be expressed in gram / Dan.
Elasticity of fiber: in the process use of fiber its products, they are subject to external forces generate corresponding deformation. When the effect of external force is removed, one part of the deformation of the fiber can be restored, while the other part will . According to this characteristic of fiber, the deformation of fiber can be divided into three parts, that is, the part that can be recovered immediately after the removal of external force is called rapid elastic deformation; the part that can be recovered slowly after the removal of external force is called slow elastic deformation; the part that cannot be recovered after the removal of external force is called plastic deformation.
The elasticity of fiber refers to the recovery ability of fiber deformation. The commonly used index to express the elastic size of fiber is the elastic recovery rate resilience rate of fiber. It refers to the percentage of rapid elastic deformation slow elastic deformation in total deformation.
If the elastic recovery rate of the fiber is high, the elasticity of the fiber is good the deformation recovery ability is strong. The textiles made of elastic fibers have good dimensional stability, are easy to wrinkle wear-resistant. For example, polyester has excellent elasticity, the clothes made of it have the characteristics of straightness, wear resistance, etc.
Wear resistance of fiber: in the process of processing actual use, the fiber its products are subject to constant friction wear. The wear resistance of fiber refers to the resistance of fiber to external force wear.
The wear resistance of fiber is closely related to the fastness of textile products. Wear resistance is an important index of the wearability of clothing fabrics. The wear resistance of fiber is related to macromolecular structure, supramolecular structure, elongation at break, elasticity other factors. The order of wear resistance of common fibers is as follows:
Nylon > polypropylene > vinylon > ethylene > polyester > acrylic > chlorine > wool > silk > cotton > hemp > strong fiber > cuprammonia fiber > viscose fiber > acetate fiber > glass fiber.
Modulus of elasticity of fiber: the modulus of elasticity of fiber is also called "initial modulus", which refers to the ratio of stress strain at the beginning of a straight line on the fiber tensile curve. In the practical calculation, the elastic modulus of the fiber can be obtained the point when the elongation of the load elongation curve is 1%.
The elastic modulus of the fiber indicates the difficulty of the fiber under small load. It reflects the rigidity of the fiber is closely related to the performance of the fabric. When other conditions are the same, if the elastic modulus of the fiber is large, the fabric will be stiff; otherwise, if the elastic modulus is small, the fabric will be soft.