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Main characteristics of common textile fibers

2015-07-02 14:30:40
Times

Acrylic overview:


Polyacrylonitrile fiber is a kind of polyacrylonitrile fiber, which is produced by wet  dry spinning with more than 85% acrylonitrile  a small amount of second  third monomers. Acrylic fiber began to be industrialized in the United States in 1950. It is one of the main synthetic fiber varieties at present. Because acrylic fiber is similar to wool, it is also called "synthetic wool".


Acrylic fiber is mainly made of short fiber, which can be pure spun  blended with wool  other fibers to make clothing fabrics, wool, blankets  knitwear, especially suitable for curtains. Nitrile can also be used to make long tow for processing into acrylic bulk yarn. In addition, acrylic fiber is also the main raw material for carbon fiber production.


Main physical  chemical properties of acrylic fiber


1. There are a few grooves on the longitudinal surface of the morphological acrylic fiber,  the cross section varies with the spinning method. The cross section of the dry spun fiber is dumbbell shaped, while that of the wet spun fiber is round.


2. The tensile strength  elastic strength of acrylic fiber are 17.6-30.8cn/tex, which are lower than polyester  nylon. Its elongation at break is 25% - 46%, similar to polyester  nylon. The acrylic fiber is fluffy, curly  soft with good elasticity, but the residual deformation of multiple stretch is large, so the cuff  neckline of acrylic knitting are easy to deform.


3. The structure of hygroscopicity  dyeability acrylic fiber is close, hygroscopicity is low,  the moisture regain is about 2% under general atmospheric conditions. In addition, the dyeability of acrylic fiber is  good enough, but now it can be dyed into various bright colors with cationic dyes.


4. Optical rotation resistance acrylic fiber has excellent optical rotation resistance  weather resistance, which is good in common textile fibers. The strength of acrylic fiber decreases only 20% when it is exposed to the sun for one year, so it is suitable for outdoor fabric.


5. Acid  alkali resistant acrylic fiber has good chemical stability, acid resistance, weak alkali resistance, oxidant resistance  organic solvent resistance. But the acrylic fiber will turn yellow in the alkaline solution  the macromolecule will break.


6. The quasi crystalline structure of other acrylic fibers makes the fibers have thermal elasticity, so acrylic fibers can be made into various bulk yarns. In addition, acrylic fiber has good heat resistance, no mildew, no moth, but poor wear resistance  dimensional stability. The relative density of acrylic fiber is small.


The dyeability of polyester is poor, so it should be dyed at high temperature  high pressure.


4. Polyester with other properties has strong heat resistance, second only to acrylic fiber in optical rotation resistance, poor conductivity, easy to generate static electricity,  easy to dust  contaminate fabrics. Polyester has good chemical stability,  is  easy to mildew  moth.


Spandex overview:


Spandex is the trade name of polyurethane elastic fiber in China. Spandex began to be industrialized in 1959. It is mainly used to make elastic fabrics. Spandex  other fibers are usually spun into core spun yarn for weaving. The utility model can be used for manufacturing various underwear, swimsuits, tights, jeans, sportswear, elastic parts of belts, etc. The clothes made of spandex are comfortable to wear, can adapt to the needs of deformation of various parts of the body,  can reduce the binding sense of clothing on the body.


Main physical  chemical properties of spandex


1. The cross-section of polyester type elastic fiber is broad bean, while that of polyether type elastic fiber is triangle.


2. The tensile strength  elastic strength of spandex are very low, the breaking strength of its filament is about 4-9cn / tex, but the elongation of spandex is very large, the breaking elongation is 450% - 800%,  the elasticity is very good. Therefore, high elongation  elasticity are the characteristics of spandex.


3. The hygroscopicity  dyeability of spandex are poor,  the moisture regain is about 0.8% ~ 1% under general atmospheric conditions. But its dyeing performance is better.


4. The density of spandex with other properties is only 1-1.3g/cm3. In addition, spandex has good acid  alkali resistance, solvent resistance, optical rotation resistance  wear resistance.


PP profile:


Polypropylene fiber is the trade name of polypropylene fiber, which is made of propylene as raw material by polymerization  melt spinning. Polypropylene fiber officially began industrial production in 1957, which is a rising star in synthetic fiber. Because polypropylene fiber has the advantages of simple production process, low price, high strength  light relative density, it develops very fast. At present, polypropylene fiber is the fourth largest variety of synthetic fiber.


The production of polypropylene fiber includes short fiber, filament  split film fiber. Polypropylene membrane fiber is made of polypropylene film first,  then the film is stretched to make it split into a network of fibrils. Polypropylene fiber is widely used in manufacturing industrial fabrics  nonwovens. Such as carpet, industrial filter cloth, rope, fishing net, building reinforcement material, oil absorption blanket  decorative cloth. In civil use, polypropylene fiber can be pure spun  blended with wool, cotton  viscose fiber to make all kinds of clothing materials. In addition, polypropylene membrane fiber can be used as packaging material.


Main physical  chemical properties of polypropylene fiber


1. The profile of polypropylene fiber is straight  smooth,  the section is round.


2. The advantage of high density polypropylene fiber is light texture, its density is only 0.91g/cm3, which is the light variety of common chemical fiber, so the same weight polypropylene fiber can get higher coverage area than other fibers.


3. High strength, long elongation, high initial modulus  good elasticity. So polypropylene fiber has good wear resistance. In addition, the wet strength of polypropylene fiber is basically equal to the dry strength, so it is an ideal material for making fishing nets  cables.


4. The hygroscopicity  dyeability of PP are very small, almost non hygroscopic,  the moisture regain is close to zero under general atmospheric conditions. But it has the function of wicking. It can transfer water vapor through the capillary in the fabric, but it does


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